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|The Studenica monastery (Serbian: Манастир Студеница / Manastir Studenica) is a Serbian Orthodox monastery situated 39 km southwest of Kraljevo, in central Serbia. It is one of the largest and richest Serb Orthodox monasteries.|
Stefan Nemanja, the founder of the medieval Serb state, founded the monastery in 1190. The monastery's fortified walls encompass two churches: the Church of the Virgin, and the Church of the King, both of which were built using white marble. The monastery is best known for its collection of 13th- and 14th century Byzantine-style fresco paintings.
In 1986 UNESCO included Studenica monastery on the list of World Heritage Sites.
The monastery Studenica, dedicated to the Presentation of the Holy Virgin, is the mother-church of all Serbian temples. It was constructed over quite long period of time. The first stage works were completed by the spring of 1196, when Stefan Nemanja abandoned his throne and settled in the monastery's foundation. When he later left for Hilandar, his son and successor Stefan took over the care of Studenica. Nemanja died in Hilandar in 1199. Nemanja's third son Sava, after reconciling his brothers Stefan and Vukan, moved Nemanja's relics to Studenica. Under guardianship of Sava, Studenica became the political, cultural and spiritual center of medieval Serbia. Among his other endeavors, Sava composed a "Studenica Typikon", the rule-book where he described St. Simon's (Nemanja's) life, leaving evidence of the spiritual and monastic life of his time.
Studenica enjoyed continual care by the members of the Nemanjić dynasty. King Radoslav added to the church a splendid narthex in 1235. King Milutin built a small but lovely church dedicated to saints Joachim and Anna.
Since the fall of the last of the medieval Serbian states in 1459, the Turks often assaulted the monastery. The first of the significant restorations of the damage took place in 1569, when the frescoes in the Church of the Virgin were repainted. In the early 17th century, an earthquake and a fire befell the monastery, and historical documents and a significant part of the artistic heritage were destroyed and lost forever.
The Virgin's Church is a domed single-nave basilica. At its eastern end there is a three-sided apse, while an extended narthex faces west; there are also vestibules on the north and the south. In the 1230s, a large exonarthex was added. The facades were built with slabs of white marble; inside, the church is revetted with tuff blocks. Externally, the Church harmoniously reconciles two architectural styles, the Romanesque and the Byzantine. The blending of these two styles eventually produced a particular style of architecture known as the Raka School.
Northwest of the Church of the Virgin there is the church of saints Joachim and Anna, known after its founder King Milutin as the King's Church. The church was constructed in 1314, in the form of a compressed cross, with the exterior structure of an octagonal dome. It is built of stone and tuff, with plastered facades.
The complex of the Studenica monastery includes the Church of St. Nicholas, a small single-nave church frescoed inside with works from the 12th or possibly early 13th centuries. Between the Church of St. Nicholas and the King's Church are the foundations of the church dedicated to St. John the Baptist. West of the Virgin's Church, there is an old refectory made of rubble, built during the time of Archbishop Sava. Finally, on the western side of the monastery complex there is a bell tower, erected in the 13th century. There used to be a chapel inside; now, only fragments of frescoes can be seen there. Remains of fresco painting have also been numbered on the external part of the narthex, splendidly representing the Nemanjic dynasty genealogy. They obviously relate to the frescoes from the Virgin's Church which date back to 1208-1209.
Northward from the Studenica refectory is the 18th century monastic residence, which now houses a museum and displays a number of the precious exhibits from the Studenica treasury. However, the frequent wars and plunders have considerably reduced the depository of the Studenica treasury.
The artistic achievements of the sculpture of Studentica culminate in four portals of the Virgin's Church, primarily the west one, inside between the narthex and the exonarthex. On the north wall under the dome, there is a window made of many square panes with medallions carved on a leaden plaque which represent eight fantastic animals - the symbols of the Virgin's virtues. There are also two rosettes denoting the Divine Eye. The masons came to Studenica most probably from the Adriatic region, perhaps from Kotor, where Nemanja used to have a palace. They left an insciption in Serbian lettering on the tympanum of the west portal.
The Virgin's Church was painted in the first decade of the 13th century. The original frescoes have been partly preserved in the altar area, under the dome, on the west wall, and in the lower registers of the nave. The most splendid representation is that of the Crucifixion, painted on blue background in 1209, one of the paramount achievements in Serbian art. On the south wall there is the "founders' composition" which shows the Virgin taking Nemanja (Simon) with the church model to Jesus Christ as the Magistrate Impartial. The narthex was painted in 1569. Those frescoes include an exquisite representation of the Last Judgment in the upper registers, and the portrait of Nemanja's wife Ana as the nun Anastasija.
The earliest fresco painting in King's church marks the supreme achievement of Byzantine art in the region. The frescoes in Radoslav's narthex and the pareclesions originate from the 1230s and display a close relation to the painting style of the main church. The north chapel, dedicated to St. Nicholas, contains a composition of the Hetimasia and a cycle dealing with the life of St. Nicholas. In the south chapel one finds the portraits of Nemanja, Stefan the First Crowned and King Radoslav with his wife Ana. On the north wall of the narthex, three dignitaries of the Serbian Church are portrayed - the archbishops Sava, Arsenije and Sava II (Radoslav's brother).
vandana2923, mbrito, billy-m, Valerka, milas, Fortuna, kokos101, norenastramus, ayse51, jazmin ha puntuado esta nota como útil.
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- [2008-04-14 22:29]
Good moods in frame...
All the best..
Great composition and narrative.
- [2008-04-15 1:33]
Pozdrav Z. ;)))
lep kolorit i perspektiva...
Hello Zorica! Beautoiful monastery. Amazing architecture. Very interesting info. Good POV, very good shot. Well done!
good morning Zorica
beautiful monastery with soft colour
thanks for the note!
ciao and have a nice day
Nice architecture shot with good details.
I like those earthy color tones. TFS
nice shot in sepia.. lovely seen of the building.. lovely composition and taken. nice job you done here..
- [2008-04-15 4:04]
Great capture of a beautiful architecture. Great colour and detail. I love the old wall in left making a line with the way in the right. Very well done.
My regards, josé
Vrlo dobra kompozicija,i dobar izbor sepia tonova...Dodaje neku finu atmosferu celoj slici:)
Interesen pogled i obrabotka.Haresva mi kompoziciata.
A originala shte pokazhesh li?
- [2008-04-15 7:54]
Merhaba myfriend Zorica....
Beautiful composition with great shot. The color are very great. Excellent photo. Well done
mislim da bi bilo bolje ovdje da se samo prebacilo u sepia ton, bez ovako agresivne obrade, jer si tako dobila ove ruzne rubove oko drveca.
to je ipak samo moje skromno misljenje.
ostalo mi je jako dobro
Another great architectural view.Good POV, sepia tones and perspective.TFS.
- [2008-04-16 0:37]
Very good perspective Zorıca.I liked harmony of the colours.TFS.Necla.:)later.
Another beautiful photo of Studenica. I like the warm colors and the white in the sky. It's like a background.
Very well done and framed!
Congratulations and TFS,
Very beautiful composition.beautiful perspective,
sepia tones and details.Well done.TFS.
- [2008-04-17 13:02]
Interesting note, excellent shot. Very nice picture, Zorica!